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Data Validation

Validation is an automated check, performed to guarantee that the data input is rational and acceptable.  It does not check the correctness of the data itself. As an example, let’s assume a coffee shop is hiring baristas aged 18 to 25.  The system can be programmed to only accept numbers between 18 and 25 for …

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Universal Serial Bus (USB)

USB is a plug-and-play interface that allows a computer to connect with components and other devices.  USB-connected devices cover a wide range of categories, from keyboards to music players and flash drives. USBs are also used to transmit power to certain devices, such as smartphones and tablets, as well as to charge their batteries.  USB version 1.0 …

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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

URL A link is more formally known as a URL, which stands for Uniform Resource Locator.  In the domain of computer science, there’s always been a debate about the difference between a URL and a URI.  Sometimes you’ll see the word web link and URL used interchangeably, and sometimes you’ll see the acronym URL and …

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Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Transmission

Synchronous Transmission In synchronous transmission, data moves in a completely paired approach, in the form of chunks or frames.  Synchronisation between the source and target is required so that the source knows where the new byte begins, since there are no spaces included between the data. Synchronous transmission is effective, dependable, and often utilised for …

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Programming Data Types

Data Type A data type is a means of classifying the type of data that a variable or object can hold in computer programming.  Data types are an important factor in all computer programming languages, including C#, C++, JavaScript, and Visual Basic.  When programmers develop computer software—whether that’s desktop or web-based—data types must be assigned and applied correctly in order to guarantee proper outcomes …

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Simplex, Half Duplex, Full Duplex

Transmission There are three modes of transmission, namely: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex.  The transmission mode defines the direction of signal flow between two connected devices. The primary difference between three modes of transmission is that in a simplex mode of transmission the communication is unidirectional, or one-way; whereas in the half duplex mode of transmission the communication …

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Serial & Parallel Data Transmission

There are two ways to transfer data between computers: Serial Transmission and Parallel Transmission. Serial Transmission Data is sent bit by bit from one computer to another in two directions.  Each bit has a clock pulse rate.  Eight bits are transmitted at a time, with a start and stop bit known as a parity bit, …

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Phishing

Phishing is a term used to describe a harmful individual, or group of individuals, that cheats users by sending emails or creating web pages that are intended to collect an individual’s online bank, credit card, or other login information. The emails and web pages look official, which is why users trust them and voluntarily part with their personal information. Phishing …

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Selection In Programming

A selection is used to make choices depending on information.  An algorithm can be made smarter by using IF, THEN, and ELSE functions to reiterate instructions, or to move the process in question to different parts of the program. Selection is also called a decision.  It is one of the three basic logic assemblies in …

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Variables and Constants

Variables and constants are two commonly used mathematical concepts.  A variable is a value that has the ability to change.  A constant is a value which remains unchanged. These concepts have branched out into other fields, like physics and computer science.  Variables In the mathematical framework, a variable is a quantity which has a dynamic …

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Output Devices

Output devices  Computer output devices receive information from the computer, and carry data that has been processed by the computer to the user.  Output devices provide data in myriad different forms, some of which include audio, visual, and hard copy media.  The devices are usually used for display, projection, or for physical reproduction.  Monitors and printers are two of the most commonly-known output devices …

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Proxy Servers – Forward & Reverse Proxy Servers

Proxy Server A proxy server is similar to a web browser.  Whenever you look at a web page, your web browser stores that web page into a cache, so that at a later time, if you are to look at the web page again, your browser retrieves it much faster. This increased speed comes as …

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Pharming & Pharming Attacks

What is a Pharming Attack? Over the years, human technology has steadily progressed from one level to the next.  As well as being true in general, this is unfortunately also true in the world of cybercrime.  As the techniques cyber criminals use to execute their deceitful acts are exposed and regulated, they advance to new …

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Computer Security

Computer Security is, basically speaking, the preservation of computing systems and the information that they save and / or retrieve. Computer Security is important as it enables people to perform their work and study.  It helps in the execution of essential business processes, and Safeguards confidential and sensitive information. Computer Security is important enough that …

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Primary Key (Primary Keyword)

A primary key, also known as primary keyword, is a key in a relational database which is specific for each record.  It is a unique attribute, like a driver’s license number, telephone number with area code, or vehicle identification number (VIN).  A relational database can only have one primary key.  Primary keys are usually displayed …

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Operating System (OS)

You and your computer speak different languages.  Computers don’t speak English, nor Spanish; they only speaks in 0s and 1s.  Man and computer cannot communicate directly, which is why an operating system is needed.  The operating system (OS) is a program that allows you to interact with the computer.  Together, the operating system and the …

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Web Browser

Web Browser The most important program in your computer is the web browser, and yet most people are not sure which web browser they are using, or even what exactly a web browser is.  A web browser is not in itself all that different from Windows or Mac, which are systems that allow you to …

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Testing and Test Data

Testing Testing is the name given to the process of discovering if something works, and if so, if it works well.  Testing is used in computer hardware and software development to determine whether objectives are being met.  It is done at significant checkpoints in the development process. Purposes of Testing To be able to assess …

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What is a Database?

Database Management System (DBMS) A database is any collection of information that has been systematised for quick searching and retrieval via the use of a computer.  Databases are intended to provide the means for the modification, deletion, storage, and retrieval of data in connection with different operations.  A database management system (DBMS) utilises queries to pull out information from the …

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Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a computer networking procedure for safeguarding connections between network application clients and servers over a vulnerable network, like the internet.  Because of several procedure and execution defects and weaknesses, SSL was disapproved for use on the internet by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in 2015, and has since been replaced …

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Sensors

Sensors are advanced devices that are used to sense and react to signals, either electrical or optical.  A sensor translates the physical characteristic of the input into a signal which can be calculated electrically.  For example, the mercury in a glass thermometer expands and compresses the liquid in order to represent the calculated temperature, which can be viewed …

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