In programming, a data type is a categorization that specifies what kind of operation can be applied to it without resulting in an error.
The data type determines which operations can be safely executed to develop, transpose, and apply the variable to another computation. When a programming language needs a variable to be used only in ways that follow its data type, that language is said to be strongly typed. Doing this reduces errors, because while it is reasonable to ask the computer to multiply a float by an integer (3.4 x 3), it is unreasonable to ask the computer to multiply a float by a string (3.4 x Sam). When a programming language allows a variable to assume a different data type, the language is said to be weakly typed.
Strongly typed and weakly typed programming languages are commonly-held misconceptions. There is a concept of type safety, whereby a programming language constrains or restricts type error.
Common Data Types
- Integer – a whole number that can have a positive, negative, or zero value. It cannot be a fraction, nor can it include decimal places. It is commonly used in programming, especially for increasing values. Addition, subtraction, and multiplication of two integers results in an integer. However, division of two integers may result in either an integer or a decimal. The resulting decimal can be rounded off or truncated in order to produce an integer.
- Character – any number, letter, space, or symbol that can be entered in a computer. Every character occupies one byte of space.
- String – used to represent text. It is composed of a set of characters that can include spaces and numbers. Strings are enclosed in quotation marks to identify the data as strings, and not as variable names, nor as numbers.
- Floating Point Number – a number that contains decimals. Numbers that contain fractions are also considered floating-point numbers.
- Array – a kind of a list that contains a group of elements which can be of the same data type as an integer or string. It is used to organise data for easier sorting and searching of related sets of values.
- Varchar – as the name implies, a varchar is a variable character, on account of the fact that the memory storage has variable length. Each character occupies one byte of space, plus 2 bytes additional for length information.
Note: Use Character for data entries with fixed lengths, like phone numbers, but use Varchar for data entries with variable lengths, like address.
- Boolean – used for creating true or false statements. To compare values the following operators are being used: AND, OR, XOR, and NOT.
|x AND y||True||If both x and y are True|
|x AND y||False||If either x or y is False|
|x OR y||True||If either x or y, or both x and y are True|
|x OR y||False||If both x and y are False|
|x XOR y||True||If only x or y is True|
|x XOR y||False||If x and y are both True or both False|
|NOT x||True||If x is False|
|NOT x||False||If x is True|
- Date, Time and Timestamp – these data types are used to work with data containing dates and times.
|DATE||Year, Month and Day|
|TIME||Hour, Minute and Second|
|TIMESTAMP||Year, Month, Day, Hour, Minute, Second and Microsecond|