Networks

How networks work and communicate, how to detect errors, data transmission, and more.

Computer Network Topology

The key factor in determining the performance of a network is its topology. By topology, it means how a network is organized. Each network consists of different nodes and these nodes are connected to each other with links. The arrangement of these links in different ways results in different kinds of network topologies. These links …

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Peer to Peer Network

Computer networking is a prevalent technique and a great application of information technology used for various purposes. Computer networking aims to connect multiple computers or devices to share resources and data. Employing networking helps to use a reduced number of hardware like printers, scanners, etc., for multiple systems. Moreover, computer networking helps create and process …

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Packet and Circuit Switching

Network Switching Switching is one of the most significant parameters of networking. At the same time, connection with the internet or with a network for sending the messages or transferring data files a medium is used for connection of systems. It is a process for sharing data among various systems, networks, and segments.  Network switching …

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Protocol Layers

Protocol Layers A set of rules defined for communication among the devices using a network is known as a protocol. The rules contain guidelines that are used to regulate specific attributes in a network. These attributes include access method, the permission of physical topologies, kind of cables, and data transfer rate. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) …

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Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

TCP/IP: The TCP/IP model allows the clients to adopt a specific behavior to link a device with the internet. Moreover, TCP/IP helps how to move data between the devices using the network. When multiple computer networks are linked together, it assists users in building a virtual network. The prime objective of the TCP/IP model is …

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Local Area Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs)

The computer network is a series of interconnected computers. Computers are also named as “nodes” in the networking domain. There exist various tracks to enable communication among computers, such as cables, most usually Ethernet cable, or optical fiber. Connections may also be wireless; you will hear the word wi-fi to explain knowledge sent by radio …

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Multi-User Operating System

INTRODUCTION Let’s first understand what an operating system is. An operating system is a big piece of software that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware, which does multiple functions such as  Memory Management File Management Processor Management In General, The Operating System that we use on our computer at home, …

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Universal Serial Bus (USB)

USB is a plug-and-play interface that allows a computer to connect with components and other devices.  USB-connected devices cover a wide range of categories, from keyboards to music players and flash drives. USBs are also used to transmit power to certain devices, such as smartphones and tablets, as well as to charge their batteries.  USB version 1.0 …

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Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Transmission

Synchronous Transmission In synchronous transmission, data moves in a completely paired approach, in the form of chunks or frames.  Synchronisation between the source and target is required so that the source knows where the new byte begins, since there are no spaces included between the data. Synchronous transmission is effective, dependable, and often utilised for …

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Simplex, Half Duplex, Full Duplex

Transmission There are three modes of transmission, namely: simplex, half duplex, and full duplex.  The transmission mode defines the direction of signal flow between two connected devices. The primary difference between three modes of transmission is that in a simplex mode of transmission the communication is unidirectional, or one-way; whereas in the half duplex mode of transmission the communication …

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Serial & Parallel Data Transmission

There are two ways to transfer data between computers: Serial Transmission and Parallel Transmission. Serial Transmission Data is sent bit by bit from one computer to another in two directions.  Each bit has a clock pulse rate.  Eight bits are transmitted at a time, with a start and stop bit known as a parity bit, …

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Data Transmission

Data transmission is a means of transmitting digital or analog data over a communication medium to one or more devices.  It allows the transmission and communication of devices in different environments: point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, or multipoint-to-multipoint. Data transmission can either be analog or digital, but is mostly earmarked for sending and receiving digital data.  As such, …

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Computer Networks

Candidates should be able to: explain the advantages of networking stand-alone computers into a local area network describe the hardware needed to connect stand-alone computers into a local area network, including hub/switches, wireless access points explain the different roles of computers in a client-server and a peer-to-peer network describe, using diagrams or otherwise, the ring, …

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Error Detection

Error An error is a situation that occurs the output data does not equate with the input data.  During communication, digital indicators encounter noise that can possibly initiate errors in the binary bits moving from one system to another.  This means a 0 bit may be altered to 1, or a 1 bit may be …

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The Internet

Candidates should be able to: describe the nature of the Internet as a worldwide collection of computer networks describe the hardware needed to connect to the Internet including modems, routers etc explain the need for IP addressing of resources on the Internet and how this can be facilitated by the role of DNS servers explain …

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